Reflections on Bojack Horseman, the Middle-Classes and Indian Mothers

In the incredibly confusing year of 2020, I moved back in with my parents and my grandmother. It’s been good and bad in equal parts thus far. It was also in the first part of this year that I finally got around to watching Bojack Horseman, a show that I’d heard rave reviews about for years but had never really got around to watching. Life’s crazy enough without having to deal with knowing about every pop cultural sensation that people produce.

For anyone who like me finds it difficult to keep up with shows, Bojack Horseman is one of a slate of adult cartoons that have come out in the past 5-odd years that deal with themes that you wouldn’t necessarily associate with cartoons. Sure, they’re funny, but the medium that they use allows them to explore themes with far more depth than traditional Saturday morning cartoons ever could.

The show sets you in a version of Los Angeles that is populated by anthropomorphic animals and humans. The show’s protagonist (antagonist?) Bojack, is an actor who hit it big with a show called Horsin Around in the 90’s, and almost 2 decades later is still living on borrowed glory. A classic Narcissist, Bojack watches reruns of his show while neck deep in alcohol and pills. On his journey over 6 seasons, he is joined by Princess Carolyn, Todd Chavez, Mr. Peanutbutter and Diane Nguyen, and a cast of semi-major to minor characters, who the show uses to explore themes of depression, anxiety and substance abuse, amongst others.

From the very beginning, Bojack is a very painful character to watch develop. He’s frequently awful to others around him and uses them to get what he wants. Like the song (originally by the Hollies, but the Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young Live version does it for me) goes, Bojack is King Midas in Reverse – everything he touches turns to dust. Bojack doesn’t seem to have problems, Bojacks seems to BE the problem.

He, like most of the characters on the show, aren’t really lovable. The show switches out lovability for complexity. Instead of easy laughs, you get richness. You don’t love him, but you do root for him to do the right thing. Instead, he goes around and round in an ever-shrinking spiral that eventually ends with him trashing his old house in a drunken haze and almost killing himself. This puts him in jail and effectively ends his career as the Horny Unicorn, and alienating most of his closest friends. There’s plenty of meat in each character’s story arc, but the one that shone the brightest to my moving-back-in-with-my-parents jaded eyes was the one that features Beatrice Horseman, the mother of Bojack Horseman.

It’s established pretty early on that Bojack has a difficult time dealing with his relationship with his parents. We’re introduced to Beatrice and Butterscotch Horseman mainly through Bojack’s own introspections and the dialogue that he has with others. Beatrice is the inheritor of the Sugarman fortune, the only surviving child of her parents and the first part of our tale. When Bojack goes to his grandparents’ house in the boonies to get away from the death of Sarah Lynn (who OD’s on a brand of Heroin that is named after him), we see for the first time, how events conspire to create the person (horse?) that is Beatrice.

Soon after Beatrice’s brother crackerjack is killed in WW2, her mother Honey Sugarman suffers a severe breakdown. Her husband Joseph Sugarman does not know how to process her grief and instead has a lobotomy performed on her. As a shell of her former self, Honey cannot express herself very well but does manage to warn Beatrice that she must not love anybody like Honey loved Crackerjack. As one of the earliest memories of Beatrice that we are introduced to, parts of her future self, start to make a little more sense. Her father’s stoicism and inability to deal with her mother’s grief shines through. This along with the lesson that she is taught – look at what love earned her mother.

Butterscotch manages to crash Beatrice’s debutante ball and seduces her with his auteur personality. They hook up in his car that night and Beatrice ends up pregnant with Bojack. Left with no choice, she turns up at Butterscotch’s doorstep and they decide to get married and have the child. As Butterscotch says, he will write his Great American Novel and she will raise the child. Effectively robbed of her youth at 18 years of age, Beatrice spends the rest of her life in a loveless marriage raising Bojack.

Three Generations

My earliest memories of my mother aren’t filled with recollections of physical affection. I remember running up to her as a child with a scrape that I had managed to get while playing outdoors. Her response to this was to give me a bottle of Dettol and a roll of cotton and asked me to clean myself up. My mother just finds it difficult to give children the “motherly” concern that we associate with being a parent. When I was a kid, I didn’t find this odd. I just figured that’s what mothers were like. This feeling also takes a strange valance in a country whose head executive refers to states, countries and goddesses as mothers in various contexts.

My mother described to me what meeting my father’s family was like. She was surprised by the fact that the children in the family were being shown overt physical affection. This didn’t align with how she was raised either. She’s the eldest of two daughters and was educated at a convent, which is where you send your children to if you want them to have the best chance at the job market later on in life. It was the middle-class thing to do.

My Grandmother with my Mother (Image Credits: Anirudh Rangarajan)

My grandmother was married away young (at 16) and she tried to raise my mother how she thought a daughter should be raised. Her experiences as a child informed what she taught my mother to believe in. This involved the expectation that my mother would one day have to cook and do chores for a mother-in-law. My mother hated every minute of it. She hated the idea of being made to do things for another person. Then, as now, my mother has always struck me as a fiercely independent person.

The Wedding Day of my Grandmother and Grandfather (Image Credits: Anirudh Rangarajan)

My mother believes that coddling a child beyond a certain point makes them soft. To push your children to achieve what they can achieve is to her, as it was to my grandparents, the cardinal duty of a parent. To love too much would be failing in your duties. To ration love, and to withhold it when it was necessary, is to make love conditional. It’s a hard-knock version of parenting and one that I think a lot of us are familiar with.

There’s a version of this that has to do with middle class values of a life well lived and how success is defined. We talk of these values as being largely positive, but that doesn’t take into account how it makes us treat our children. Being a part of the middle-class fosters a sense of insecurity. It is a status that you are not born with, but instead that is “awarded” to you as a result of being part of a particular socio-economic bracket and must be “earned” generation after generation. A natural consequence is that there is this insecurity that comes from a fear of losing that status, regardless of the fact that many members of the middle class have generational wealth as a result of, well, generations of relatively high-income earners being part of a family.

My mother eventually went on to become a doctor. I happened to her in the middle of her MD exams. She actually failed her first try because of all of the extra effort you had to make if you were dealing with a child in the middle of it all. She says that if she had to do it all over again, she would have waited for another year to have a child. 39, instead of 29. Although she doesn’t actually put it in those words, being a mother is something that she is very ambivalent about and there is a part of me that thinks that it’s a condition that was hoisted on her. It’s what people expected of you. Those were not questions that she could ask.

My Mother and I (Image Credits: Anirudh Rangarajan)

Resentment and Grace

In the incredible monologue that he delivers at his mother’s funeral, Bojack says that he was always surprised that the moments of grace that he experienced while his mother danced at the dinner parties that they hosted. There are memories that I have of my mother where some of the purest joy that she could express happened because of cinema. If anybody remembers the early 2000’s, it was the era when Star Movies and HBO played some incredible content. Some of my happiest childhood memories are watching India Jones and Star Wars with my mother. Somehow, they made her seem less cold and more of a giggly child. It wasn’t something that I was used to, but those are moment that I still cherish to this day. She isn’t a fan of Star Wars Episode 7, 8 and 9, but she did like Rouge One.

Honestly, Bojack is heartbreaking to watch. At first, I understood the resentment that he had towards his mother. I still do.  Then, there’s the redemption arc that both Bojack and his mother share, and that’s the bit that really got me. As some people have commented, time and generational trauma truly is the antagonist in Bojack Horseman. In the truly incredible Free Churro episode in Season 5, Bojack laments the fact that life and relationships cannot be managed or solved with grand displays, but instead rely more on doing good daily.

Dementia is a funny thing. Beatrice suffers from it, and so does my Grandmother. There are no grand displays with dementia. There’s only the everyday repetition. There’s also a morbid fatalism to all of this. As Hollyhock, Bojack’s half-sister, reminds him, Dementia is genetic. It robs of you of the ability to communicate information to a person. As a doctor, 2020 has been a really difficult year for my mother and my grandmother’s inability to really be present has been a loadstone around her neck. I also have instructions to put a bullet between my mother’s eyes if she ever ends up the same way. If her genetic lottery comes through, she will end up the same way. As will I. I’m not sure what gun ownership laws in India are like, but it sounds like it would involve too much paperwork.

When I was talking to my mother for the purposes of this article, she often brought up the fact that my grandmother had raised her and her sister with the fact that they had to be self-sufficient. To be able to stand on your own two feet was what would help you in life. The particulars of loving a child just as they were seemed secondary to the task of raising a child who could do better than the previous generation did. From Salem, to Coimbatore, to Chennai – over a period of 100 years. Taken in this context, rationing love as a means to incentivize performance makes sense.

My grandmother has never told my mother that she loves her, and presumably she never will, and while my mother and I do attempt to tell each other this in all our new-born-calf-like awkwardness, she will never have that with her mother. In the Free Churro episode, Bojack mentions that Beatrice looked at him and said, “I see you.” He wonders if that means that his mother meant that she “sees” him, finally, after all these years. The gag is that she was in the ICU and that she was just saying I-C-U. Even in tragic death, Bojack presents you with a gag. I get to be seen, but my mother doesn’t have that option. Dementia robbed her of that.

Bojack Horseman wasn’t cathartic in the regular sense. There wasn’t a character that had an arc where they ended up figuring it all out. There’s no closure. In fact, the show ends with allusions to the fact that Bojack and Diane will really not be friends anymore. It ends with a moment of silence, with the both of them framed against the night sky. Instead, it made me feel seen. Growing up in a culture of silence, families never speak truth. Divorces, substance abuse and familial strife aren’t spoken about. Bojack Horseman screamed it from the rooftops.

The Beatrice-Bojack storyline revolves around the march of time. It contrasts you as an autonomous individual who can make decisions with the fact that the early childhood experiences determine the person you become in so many ways. The show also uses some of the flash-backs in really creative ways. As this Youtuber pointed out – Butterscotch, Bojack and Hollyhock are shown having the same nervous tick. They all rub their left arm with their right hand in moments of stress. A detail that reinforces the point that the show is trying to make, that we always carry some of that old stuff with us. It made me think of my mother not just as my mother but as a person who carries the weight of her upbringing and made choices based on her experiences. We want to think that we are capable of these moments of forgiveness and transformative grace. The show reminds us that real life is so much messier than we give it credit for. As humans, we really are cursed with free will. We take the decision to be good. Consistently. Every day. It doesn’t present you with the pretense of shortcuts. It’s honest, and for that, I’m grateful.

Mothers are Human

Bojack Horseman reminded me of a simple fact that often eludes us – the fact that mothers are just as human as we are. Raising a child is an incredibly difficult task to perform right, and it is thankless in many ways. Mothers, mine and yours, are all imprinted with so much of the pain of their own childhood. In a sense, to embrace the idea of possessing free will is to develop a radical sense of empathy for those who we feel wronged by. Bojack is an incredibly flawed human and though he tries really hard to do the right thing, he often fails miserably.

While his place in the familial memory of the Horseman-Sugarman lineage places severe constraints on his ability to have moments of grace and forgiveness with his mother, the only way for him to resolve that trauma is to do the work that is required of him to not pass it on to the next generation. In a perverse way, the fact that he is constrained by painful circumstances is what makes the choice of empathy so radical. We don’t choose those circumstances, but we can still choose to embrace those moments of grace, and that is the cathartic core of the Bojack Horseman.

A Tale of Two Viruses

According to Fidler, a global health expert at the Council for Foreign Relations, Gro Harlem Brundtland (Director General of WHO at the time) did something in the early 2000’s that was unprecedented. She spoke international norms into existence. In February of 2003, WHO officials were beginning to suspect that China was hiding the outbreak of a disease that had already “killed a 100 people.” With no clear mandate on what the WHO was supposed to do, Brundtland was incredibly critical of China and asked for the WHO to be brought in on the SARS epidemic. Then something incredible happened – China fell in line and started sharing their data[i]. Much of the consensus on WHO norms were crafted in the wake of the SARS epidemic.

Fast forward to two decades later and the WHO is under an incredible amount of scrutiny from all sides of the political spectrum. Even those who do not accuse them of being complicit in helping China hide the outbreak aren’t convinced that they did a good job. Dr. Tedros Ghebreyesus, the current DG of the WHO delayed naming the virus a public health crisis, repeated China’s line about the non-communicability of the disease between humans and also took a stance against travel restrictions to mitigate the spread of the disease[ii]. All of this builds on the fact that Tedros was elected as a result of Chinese lobbying[iii]. He won out against David Nabbaro, who was backed by the United States and the UK.

All this points towards one thing. The sphere of Chinese influence at multilateral institutions in general and the UN in particular is increasing. Furthermore, while they jockey for position within established institutions, they have also been involved in creating parallel institutions like the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) that were broadly modeled on the older Bretton Woods institution the International Monetary Fund (IMF)[iv]. the BRICS bank which became the New Development Bank is another example of this. The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is closely married to the functioning of these development banks. Loans from China are quite puzzlingly both a carrot and a stick and have been used to seize ports as a means to service debt that is unsustainable. Chinese debt trap diplomacy as a strategy also has domestic implications since the building of infrastructure projects is also a means to off-load excess production and to generate employment and GDP growth. Strategically, it allows China access to ports around Africa and also the world.

Chinese state craft is calculated. There are advantages in using both bilateral as well as multilateral institutions. In bargaining with smaller countries in Africa and Asia, as the bigger power in a two-person game, China can manage favorable outcomes[v]. On the other hand, China does not have pockets as deep as the United States and as a consequence cannot take on all of the financial burden on its own. Thus, the need for parallel development institutions like AIIB and NDB. Being of primacy in a multilateral institution also provides China with an aura of legitimacy, something that the United States used to have as a result of their leadership at the UN.

Ever since 2016, the state of American diplomacy has been without direction. Trump’s obsession with the art of the deal has led American diplomacy to become increasingly transactional in nature, and the desire seems to be getting wins on specific issues and taking punitive action when there is a perceived slight against America. At the height of the crisis in New York, Trump pulled $ 400 Million worth of funding to the WHO and stated that this was because of preferential treatment to China. At a time when more engagement seems to be the solution, America seems to be choosing less engagement[vi]. A good example to illustrate the lack of engagement would be the fact that the Chinese candidate won the election for the leadership of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in part due to the fact that America and Europe picked and backed different candidates. This split the voting bloc and allowed China to win that election[vii].

An increase in Chinese engagement at the UN also pays very real dividends like when the head of the UN and World Trade Organization (WTO) spoke at the Belt and Road Forum in 2017. This, according to Hilman in his testimony to the US China Economic and Security and Review Commission (USCC) “adds to the illusion that cultivated by Beijing that the BRI itself is multilateral.[viii]

There is a fundamental tension within the modern nation state and that is to give primacy to domestic concerns vis-à-vis their citizens while also engaging with other nations to manage security and economic concerns. The response to Covid from nation states has seen a closing of borders, minimal coordination between nations, the creation of strawmen to blame and a desperate scramble to acquire ventilators. There is an alternate version of events that would have seen a coordinated response between nations and no racial animus directed towards Africans. Unfortunately, that’s not the world we live in. The richest country in the world appears weak at a time when China seems to have the situation well in hand. There are mass graves being dug in New York, but Wuhan has a dazzling light show in all the colors of the rainbow to celebrate.

The IMF estimates that this will be the worst recession since the great depression[ix]. America and Europe will be stretched thin. In a world where countries are still reeling from the effects of the virus, can China make gains in the international system especially when it comes to BRI platform? There are two separate concerns here – optics and economics. China just put out their revised version of the extent of the outbreak in Wuhan and the numbers seem to have jumped up a whole 50%. This essentially undermines the Chinese model of controlling the outbreak as being an effective[x]. It is also difficult to contrast the Chinese model as an alternative since it rests on the level of state control, which again is at odds with China presenting itself as a benevolent hegemon.

Even before the outbreak of the coronavirus, it seems that the quantum of investment on the BRI platform seems to have reduced. According to the American Enterprise Institute and the Heritage Foundation, the drop was as much as 41% from 2018 to 2019. Derek Scissors at the American Enterprise Institute sees this as a result of China being more aware of the negative reaction it had been getting to the nature of its investment as being predatory and not in good faith[xi]. Significant BRI projects in Indonesia and Pakistan have seen a freeze as a result of the coronavirus outbreak[xii].

There have been academics, such as Pang Zhongying who have argued that the coronavirus incident could be used by China to expand BRI to include public health infrastructure[xiii] but it remains to be seen if there will any appetite for Chinese investment in public health infrastructure given that the virus has been called the “Chinese Virus” all around the world. While the xenophobic nature of calling it a “Chinese virus” is unfortunate, the Communist Party of China and its handling of the virus has been widely noted as having aided the spread of the virus. As is very often the case, the open sharing of information could have saved the world time and money. Even within China, the treatment of Dr. Li Wenliang who was the first to report on a “SARS like illness” as early as December was a point of anger and contention on Chinese social media. This eventually led to an inquiry into the matter and the charges have since been recanted and he has been designated a martyr[xiv]. Dr. Wenliang who eventually succumbed to the illness is just one of many cases of popular dissent on social media against the Chinese state.

Two RNA based lifeforms 17 years apart and two very different reactions. What explains the different reactions is the position of China with regards to the rest of the world. China in 2003 was still a country that could not project power economically and diplomatically. The fact that China could convince Italy to sign on to the BRI is enormously significant. It would have been unthinkable back in 2003 that a NATO member would make that decision, but in the eyes of China, 2020 is a very different world. China today sees itself as having the power to influence major powers like Italy and to also influence multilateral institutions like the WHO.

China might make incremental gains on the margins in the current economic environment but one should be cautious about presenting this as an opportunity for China to make inroads into various countries. BRI projects that have already broken ground will be sustained by Chinese companies that will be hungry for a source of demand, but countries will be even more wary now of infrastructure projects that are dependent on Chinese supply chains – which is literally every BRI project. With regards to multilateral institutions, the outlook seems to be somber. There is a distinct lack of leadership and coordination. It took decades to build the deep diplomatic channels that sustained these institutions but it seems like mere years would be enough to dismantle them. The hollowing out of international institutions will not mean that they will become irrelevant. They will remain relevant, but their relevance will be to China and not to the nations of the world.

Extended Content

[i] Buranyi, Stephen. “The WHO v Coronavirus: Why It Can’t Handle the Pandemic.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, April 10, 2020.

[ii] Mohan, C. Raja. “COVID-19 Has Sharpened US-China Conflict. WHO Is Caught in the Crossfire.” The Indian Express, March 24, 2020.

[iii] Collins, Michael. “The WHO and China: Dereliction of Duty.” Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Accessed April 19, 2020.

[iv] Hillman, E. Jonathan. “Hearing on ‘A China Model?’ Beijing’s Promotion of Alternative Global Norms and Standards.” U.S. – China Economic and Security Review Commission, March 13, 2020, pg. 3

[v] Ibid., pg. 9

[vi] Gawthorpe, Andrew. “Trump’s Decision to Cut WHO Funding Is an Act of International Vandalism | Andrew Gawthorpe.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, April 15, 2020.

[vii] Ibid., iv, pg. 7

[viii] Ibid., iv, pg. 8

[ix] Gopinath, Gita. “The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression.” IMF Blog, April 15, 2020.

[x] Kuo, Lily. “China Denies Cover-up as Wuhan Coronavirus Deaths Revised up 50%.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, April 17, 2020.

[xi] Bloomberg. “China’s Belt and Road Plan Is Getting Lashed by Coronavirus.” The Economic Times. Economic Times, March 6, 2020.

[xii] Deutsche Welle. “Coronavirus Could Force China to Rein in Belt and Road Ambitions: DW: 17.04.2020.” DW.COM. Accessed April 19, 2020.

[xiii] “How China’s Coronavirus Response May Shape Future of Belt and Road Plans.” South China Morning Post, March 22, 2020.

[xiv] Davidson, Helen. “Chinese Inquiry Exonerates Coronavirus Whistleblower Doctor.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, March 20, 2020.


November is a month that the Indian government should be worried about. There is an unspoken rule in international politics that interference in the domestic politics of a foreign government is usually frowned upon. By doing this you run the risk of alienating potential future allies. India has been fortunate thus far in that it is one of the few countries that enjoys bi-partisan support in Washington foreign policy. The 2005 nuclear deal was signed between Manmohan Singh and George W. Bush and the Obama administration made nice with the BJP government when the 2014 Lok Sabha elections saw the UPA being replaced by the NDA. What has always put the brakes on the word “strategic partner” being used as opposed to friend/ally is the fact that both Washington and India have their own agenda and very often that has resulted in decisions being taken for structural reasons.

Trump and Modi however seem to have broken the mould. The Howdy Modi event as well as the reception that Trump received in Motera have created the illusion that the two leaders seem to view the other as a natural ally. Critically, they seem to bolster the shared narrative of anti-establishment figures who are not afraid to take tough decision to advance the interests of their nations.

In political communication between the two countries, you often see the term “shared values” being used often. This refers to the fact that India and America have democratic systems, which often signals to other adjacent concepts such as rule of law and concern for human rights. Trump seems to be a more transactional leader and does not seem to pay heed to traditional American foreign policy directives. What India should be concerned about is that this approach seems to have an expiry date on it. Trump won’t be the President after 2024.

Progressives in the Democratic party do not feel as kindly about the transactional nature of American foreign policy at the moment. Ilhan Omar, Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren expressed concern about the riots that took place in Delhi which quite surprisingly coincided with Trumps visit. Others like Ro Khanna and Pramila Jayapal, Democrats of Indian descent have also spoken out about the current polarized nature of Indian politics. By tying himself to Trump, Modi has erred in creating the conditions where a Democratic president in either 2020 or 2024 could feel compelled to pull back on a closer relationship to placate sections of the American political establishment.

Lok Sabha Core List

This list covers the Lok Sabha seats as of on the 14th of January, 2019. It should be noted that this list does not take into consideration any of the seats that are vacant. While reviewing those might provide some benefit, i do not consider them as constituting a real threat one way or the other. If new information does come to light, i shall edit this.

All of this has been sourced from here

It’s a pretty comprehensive list, but i wanted a straight up list on one page, and that’s why this document exists on the internet.

Edit: this list contains the data from 509 seats. 

Lok Sabha Constituencies List

By State & Union Territory

Sl. No.
Name of State
No. of Constituencies
1 Andhra Pradesh 20
2 Arunachal Pradesh 2
3 Assam 14
4 Bihar 38
5 Chhattisgarh 10
6 Goa 2
7 Gujarat 26
8 Haryana 10
9 Himachal Pradesh 4
10 Jammu and Kashmir 4
11 Jharkhand 14
12 Karnataka 27
13 Kerala 18
14 Madhya Pradesh 27
15 Maharashtra 48
16 Manipur 2
17 Meghalaya 1
18 Mizoram 1
19 Nagaland 1
20 Odisha 20
21 Punjab 13
22 Rajasthan 23
23 Sikkim 1
24 Tamil Nadu 39
25 Telangana 15
26 Tripura 2
27 Uttar Pradesh 80
28 Uttarakhand 5
29 West Bengal 42
1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1
2 Chandigarh 1
3 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1
4 Daman and Diu 1
5 Lakshadweep 1
6 NCT of Delhi 7
7 Puducherry 1

Andhra Pradesh

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Amalapuram(SC) Pandula,Dr. Ravindra Babu TDP
2 Anakapalle Rao (Avanthi),Shri Muthamsetti Srinivasa TDP
3 Anantapur Reddy,Shri J.C. Divakar TDP
4 Araku(ST) Kothapalli,Smt. Geetha YSR Congress Party
5 Bapatla(SC) Malyadri,Shri Sriram TDP
6 Chittoor(SC) Sivaprasad,Dr. Naramalli TDP
7 Eluru Magantti,Shri Venkateswara Rao (Babu) TDP
8 Guntur Galla,Shri Jayadev TDP
9 Hindupur Nimmala,Shri Kristappa TDP
10 Kakinada Thota,Shri Narasimham TDP
11 Kurnool Butta,Smt. Renuka YSR Congress Party
12 Machilipatnam Rao,Shri Konakalla Narayana TDP
13 Nandyal Reddy,Shri S.P.Y. YSR Congress Party
14 Narasaraopet Rao,Shri Rayapati Sambasiva TDP
15 Narsapuram Raju,Shri Gokaraju Ganga BJP
16 Rajahmundry Maganti,Shri Murali Mohan TDP
17 Srikakulam Ram Mohan Naidu,Shri Kinjarapu TDP
18 Vijayawada Kesineni,Shri Srinivas TDP
19 Visakhapatnam Kambhampati,Dr. Hari Babu BJP
20 Vizianagaram Pusapati,Shri Ashok Gajapathi Raju TDP

Arunachal Pradesh

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Arunachal East Ering,Shri Ninong INC
2 Arunachal West Rijiju,Shri Kiren BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Autonomous District(ST) Engti,Shri Biren Singh INC
2 Barpeta Ajmal, Shri Sirajuddin AIUDF
3 Dhubri Ajmal, Maulana Badruddin AIUDF
4 Dibrugarh Teli,Shri Rameswar BJP
5 Gauhati Chakravarty,Smt. Bijoya BJP
6 Jorhat Tasa,Shri Kamakhya Prasad BJP
7 Kaliabor Gogoi,Shri Gaurav INC
8 Karimganj(SC) Biswas,Shri Radheshyam AIUDF
9 Kokrajhar(ST) Sarania,Shri Naba (Hira) Kumar Ind.
10 Lakhimpur Baruah,Shri Pradan BJP
11 Mangaldoi Deka,Shri Ramen BJP
12 Nawgong Gohain,Shri Rajen BJP
13 Silchar Dev,Km. Sushmita INC
14 Tezpur Sarmah,Shri Ram Prasad BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Araria Alam,Shri Sarfaraz RJD
2 Arrah Singh,Shri Raj Kumar BJP
3 Aurangabad Singh,Shri Sushil Kumar BJP
4 Banka Yadav,Shri Jay Prakash Narayan RJD
5 Bhagalpur Kumar,Shri Shailesh (Bulo Mandal) RJD
6 Buxar Choubey,Shri Ashwini Kumar BJP
7 Darbhanga Azad, Shri Kirti (JHA) BJP
8 Gaya(SC) Manjhi,Shri Hari BJP
9 Gopalganj(SC) Ram,Shri Janak BJP
10 Hajipur(SC) Paswan,Shri Ram Vilas LJSP
11 Jahanabad Kumar,Dr. Arun RLSP
12 Jamui(SC) Paswan,Shri Chirag LJSP
13 Jhanjharpur Chaudhary,Shri Birendra Kumar BJP
14 Karakat Kushwaha,Shri Upendra RLSP
15 Katihar Anwar, Shri Tariq NCP
16 Khagaria Kaiser,Choudhary Mehboob Ali LJSP
17 Madhepura Ranjan (Pappu Yadav),Shri Rajesh RJD
18 Madhubani Yadav,Shri Hukmdev Narayan BJP
19 Maharajganj Sigriwal,Shri Janardan Singh BJP
20 Munger Devi,Smt. Veena LJSP
21 Muzaffarpur Nishad,Shri Ajay BJP
22 Nalanda Kumar,Shri Kaushalendra JD(U)
23 Nawada Singh,Shri Giriraj BJP
24 Paschim Champaran Jaiswal,Dr. Sanjay BJP
25 Pataliputra Yadav,Shri Ram Kripal BJP
26 Patna Sahib Sinha,Shri Shatrughan Prasad BJP
27 Purnia Kumar,Shri Santosh JD(U)
28 Purvi Champaran Singh,Shri Radha Mohan BJP
29 Samastipur(SC) Paswan,Shri Ramchandra LJSP
30 Saran Rudy,Shri Rajiv Pratap BJP
31 Sasaram(SC) Paswan,Shri Chhedi BJP
32 Sheohar Devi,Smt. Rama BJP
33 Sitamarhi Sharma,Shri Ram Kumar RLSP
34 Siwan Yadav,Shri Om Prakash BJP
35 Supaul Ranjan,Smt. Ranjeet INC
36 Ujiarpur Rai,Shri Nityanand BJP
37 Vaishali Singh,Shri Rama Kishore LJSP
38 Valmiki Nagar Dubey,Shri Satish Chandra BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Bastar(ST) Kashyap,Shri Dinesh BJP
2 Bilaspur Sahu,Shri Lakhan Lal BJP
3 Janjgir-Champa (SC) Patle,Smt. Kamla Devi BJP
4 Kanker(ST) Usendi,Shri Vikram BJP
5 Korba Mahto,Dr. Banshilal BJP
6 Mahasamund Sahu,Shri Chandu Lal BJP
7 Raigarh(ST) Sai,Shri Vishnu Deo BJP
8 Raipur Bais,Shri Ramesh BJP
9 Rajnandgaon Singh,Shri Abhishek BJP
10 Surguja(ST) Marabi,Shri Kamalbhan Singh BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 North Goa Naik,Shri Shripad Yesso BJP
2 South Goa Sawaikar,Advocate (Shri) Narendra Keshav BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Ahmedabad East Rawal,Shri Paresh BJP
2 Ahmedabad West Solanki,Dr. (Prof.) Kirit Premjibhai BJP
3 Amreli Kachhadiya,Shri Naranbhai Bhikhabhai BJP
4 Anand Patel,Shri Dilip M. BJP
5 Banaskantha Chaudhary,Shri Haribhai Parthibhai BJP
6 Bardoli Vasava,Shri Prabhubhai Nagarbhai BJP
7 Bharuch Vasava,Shri Mansukhbhai Dhanjibhai BJP
8 Bhavnagar Shyal,Dr. Bharati Dhirubhai BJP
9 Chhota Udaipur Rathwa,Shri Ramsinh Pataliyabhai BJP
10 Dahod Bhabhor,Shri Jaswantsinh Sumanbhai BJP
11 Gandhinagar Advani, Shri Lal Krishna BJP
12 Jamnagar Maadam,Smt. Poonamben Hematbhai BJP
13 Junagadh Chudasama,Shri Rajeshbhai Naranbhai BJP
14 Kachchh(SC) Chavda,Shri Vinod BJP
15 Kheda Chauhan,Shri Devusinh Jesingbhai BJP
16 Mehsana Patel,Smt. Jayshreeben BJP
17 Navsari Patil,Shri C. R. BJP
18 Panchmahal Chauhan,Shri Prabhatsinh Pratapsinh BJP
19 Patan Vaghela,Shri Liladharbhai Khodaji BJP
20 Porbandar Radadiya,Shri Vitthalbhai Hansrajbhai BJP
21 Rajkot Kundariya,Shri Mohanbhai Kalyanji BJP
22 Sabarkantha Rathod,Shri Dipsinh Shankarsinh BJP
23 Surat Jardosh,Smt. Darshana Vikram BJP
24 Surendranagar Fatepara,Shri Devajibhai Govindbhai BJP
25 Vadodara Bhatt,Smt. Ranjanben Dhananjay BJP
26 Valsad(ST) Patel,Dr. K. C. BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
Ambala(SC) Kataria,Shri Rattan Lal BJP
2 Bhiwani-Mahendragarh Dharambir Singh,Shri BJP
3 Faridabad Gurjar,Shri Krishan Pal BJP
4 Gurgaon Rao Inderjit Singh, BJP
5 Hisar Chautala,Shri Dushyant INLD
6 Karnal Ashwini Kumar, Shri BJP
7 Kurukshetra Saini,Shri Raj Kumar BJP
8 Rohtak Hooda,Shri Deepender Singh INC
9 Sirsa(SC) Rori,Shri Charanjeet Singh INLD
10 Sonipat Kaushik,Shri Ramesh Chander BJP

Himachal Pradesh

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Hamirpur Thakur,Shri Anurag Singh BJP
2 Kangra Kumar,Shri Shanta BJP
3 Mandi Sharma,Shri Ram Swaroop BJP
4 Shimla(SC) Kashyap,Shri Virender BJP

Jammu and Kashmir

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Baramulla Baig,Shri Muzaffar Hussain J&KPDP
2 Jammu Sharma,Shri Jugal Kishore BJP
3 Srinagar Abdullah,Dr. Farooq J&KNC
4 Udhampur Singh,Dr. Jitendra BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Chatra Singh,Shri Sunil Kumar BJP
2 Dhanbad Singh,Shri Pashupati Nath BJP
3 Dumka(ST) Soren,Shri Shibu JMM
4 Giridih Pandey,Shri Ravindra Kumar BJP
5 Godda Dubey,Dr. Nishikant BJP
6 Hazaribagh Sinha,Shri Jayant BJP
7 Jamshedpur Mahato,Shri Bidyut Baran BJP
8 Khunti(ST) Munda,Shri Kariya BJP
9 Kodarma Ray,Dr. Ravindra Kumar BJP
10 Lohardaga(ST) Bhagat,Shri Sudarshan BJP
11 Palamu(SC) Ram,Shri Vishnu Dayal BJP
12 Rajmahal(ST) Hansdak,Shri Vijay Kumar JMM
13 Ranchi Choudhary,Shri Ram Tahal BJP
14 Singhbhum(ST) Giluwa,Shri Laxman BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Bagalkot Gaddigoudar,Shri Parvatagouda Chandanagouda BJP
2 Bangalore Central Mohan,Shri P. C. BJP
3 Bangalore North Gowda,Shri D.V. Sadananda BJP
4 Bangalore Rural Suresh,Shri Doddaalahalli Kempegowda INC
5 Belgaum Angadi, Shri Suresh Chanabasappa BJP
6 Bellary Ugrappa,Shri Venkatapura Subbaiah INC
7 Bidar Khuba,Shri Bhagwanth BJP
8 Bijapur(SC) Jigajinagi,Shri Ramesh Chandappa BJP
9 Chamrajanagar Dhruvanarayana,Shri R. INC
10 Chikkballapur Moily,Dr. M. Veerappa INC
11 Chikkodi Hukkeri,Shri Prakash Babanna INC
12 Chitradurga(SC) Chandrappa,Shri B.N. INC
13 Dakshina Kannada Kateel,Shri Nalin Kumar BJP
14 Davanagere Siddeshwara,Shri Gowdar Mallikarjunappa BJP
15 Dharwad Joshi,Shri Pralhad Venkatesh BJP
16 Gulbarga(SC) Kharge,Shri Mallikarjun INC
17 Hassan Devegowda,Shri H.D. JD(S)
18 Haveri Udasi,Shri Shivkumar Chanabasappa BJP
19 Kolar Muniyappa,Dr. K.H. INC
20 Koppal Karadi,Shri Sanganna Amarappa BJP
21 Mandya Shivaramegowda,Shri L.R. JD(S)
22 Mysore Simha,Shri Prathap BJP
23 Raichur Naik,Shri B.V. INC
24 Shimoga Raghavendra,Shri B. Y. BJP
25 Tumkur Muddahanumegowda,Shri S.P. INC
26 Udupi Chikmagalur Karandlaje,Km. Shobha BJP
27 Uttara Kannada Hegde,Shri Anantkumar BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Alappuzha Venugopal,Shri K. C. INC
2 Alathur Biju,Dr. Parayamparambil Kuttappan CPI(M)
3 Attingal Sampath,Dr. Anirudhan CPI(M)
4 Chalakudy Innocent,Shri Ind.
5 Ernakulam Thomas,Prof. Kuruppassery Varkey INC
6 Idukki George,Shri (Adv.) Joice Ind.
7 Kannur Teacher,Smt. P.K. Sreemathi CPI(M)
8 Kasaragod Karunakaran,Shri P. CPI(M)
9 Kollam Premachandran,Shri N.K. RSP
10 Kozhikode Raghavan,Shri M. K. INC
11 Malappuram P.K.,Shri Kunhalikutty IUML
12 Mavelikkara Kodikunnil,Shri Suresh INC
13 Palakkad Rajesh,Shri M. B. CPI(M)
14 Pathanamthitta Antony, Shri Anto INC
15 Ponnani Basheer,Shri E. T. Mohammed IUML
16 Thiruvananthapuram Tharoor,Dr. Shashi INC
17 Thrissur Jayadevan,Shri C. N. CPI
18 Vadakara Mullappally,Shri Ramachandran INC

Madhya Pradesh

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Balaghat Bhagat,Shri Bodhsingh BJP
2 Betul(ST) Dhurve,Smt. Jyoti BJP
3 Bhind(SC) Prasad,Dr. Bhagirath BJP
4 Bhopal Sanjar,Shri Alok BJP
5 Chhindwara Kamal Nath,Shri INC
6 Damoh Patel,Shri Prahlad Singh BJP
7 Dhar(ST) Thakur,Smt. Savitri BJP
8 Guna Scindia,Shri Jyotiraditya Madhavrao INC
9 Gwalior Tomar,Shri Narendra Singh BJP
10 Hoshangabad Singh,Shri Uday Pratap BJP
11 Indore Sumitra Mahajan (Tai), BJP
12 Jabalpur Singh,Shri Rakesh BJP
13 Khandwa Chauhan,Shri Nand Kumar Singh BJP
14 Khargone(ST) Patel,Shri Subhash BJP
15 Mandla(ST) Kulaste,Shri Faggan Singh BJP
16 Mandsour Gupta,Shri Sudheer BJP
17 Morena Mishra,Shri Anoop BJP
18 Rajgarh Nagar,Shri Rodmal BJP
19 Ratlam(ST) Bhuria,Shri Kantilal INC
20 Rewa Mishra,Shri Janardan BJP
21 Sagar Yadav,Shri Laxmi Narayan BJP
22 Satna Singh,Shri Ganesh BJP
23 Shahdol Singh,Shri Gyan BJP
24 Sidhi Pathak,Smt. Riti BJP
25 Tikamgarh(SC) Kumar,Dr. Virendra BJP
26 Ujjain(SC) Malviya,Prof. Chintamani BJP
27 Vidisha Swaraj,Smt. Sushma BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Ahmednagar Gandhi,Shri Dilip Kumar Mansukhlal BJP
2 Akola Dhotre,Shri Sanjay Shamrao BJP
3 Amravati Adsul, Shri Anandrao SS
4 Aurangabad Khaire,Shri Chandrakant Bhaurao SS
5 Baramati Sule,Smt. Supriya Sadanand NCP
6 Beed Munde,Dr. Pritam Gopinath BJP
7 Bhandara-Gondiya Kukde,Shri Madhukarrao Yashwantrao NCP
8 Bhiwandi Patil,Shri Kapil Moreshwar BJP
9 Buldhana Jadhav,Shri Prataprao SS
10 Chandrapur Ahir, Shri Hansraj Gangaram BJP
11 Dhule Bhamre,Dr. Subhash Ramrao BJP
12 Dindori(ST) Chavan,Shri Harishchandra Deoram BJP
13 Gadchiroli-Chimur(ST) Nete,Shri Ashok Mahadeorao BJP
14 Hatkanangle Shetti,Shri Raju alias Devappa Anna SWP
15 Hingoli Satav,Shri Rajeev Shankarrao INC
16 Jalgaon Patil,Shri A.T. (Nana) BJP
17 Jalna Danve,Shri Raosaheb Patil BJP
18 Kalyan Shinde,Dr. Shrikant Eknath SS
19 Kolhapur Mahadik,Shri Dhananjay Bhimrao NCP
20 Latur(SC) Gaikwad,Dr. Sunil Baliram BJP
21 Madha Patil,Shri Vijaysinh Mohite NCP
22 Maval Barne,Shri Shrirang Appa SS
23 Mumbai South-Central Shewale,Shri Rahul Ramesh SS
24 Mumbai-North Shetty,Shri Gopal Chinayya BJP
25 Mumbai-North-Central Mahajan,Smt. Poonam BJP
26 Mumbai-North-East Dr. Kirit Somaiya, BJP
27 Mumbai-North-West Kirtikar,Shri Gajanan Chandrakant SS
28 Mumbai-South Sawant,Shri Arvind Ganpat SS
29 Nagpur Gadkari,Shri Nitin Jairam BJP
30 Nanded Chavan,Shri Ashok Shankarrao INC
31 Nandurbar(ST) Gavit,Dr. Heena Vijaykumar BJP
32 Nashik Godse,Shri Hemant Tukaram SS
33 Osmanabad Gaikwad,Prof. Ravindra Vishwanath SS
34 Palghar Gavit,Shri Rajendra Dhedya BJP
35 Parbhani Jadhav,Shri Sanjay Haribhau SS
36 Pune Anil (alias Padmakar) Gulabrao, Shirole, Shri BJP
37 Raigad Geete,Shri Anant Gangaram SS
38 Ramtek(SC) Tumane,Shri Krupal Balaji SS
39 Ratnagiri-Sindhudurg Raut,Shri Vinayak Bhaurao SS
40 Raver Khadse,Smt. Raksha Nikhil BJP
41 Sangli Patil,Shri Sanjay(Kaka) Ramchandra BJP
42 Satara Bhonsle,Shri Udayanraje Pratapsingh NCP
43 Shirdi(SC) Lokhande,Shri Sadashiv Kisan SS
44 Shirur Adhalrao Patil, Shri Shivaji SS
45 Solapur(SC) Bansode,Shri Sharadkumar Maruti BJP
46 Thane Vichare,Shri Rajan Baburao SS
47 Wardha Tadas,Shri Ramdas Chandrabhanji BJP
48 Yavatmal-Washim Bhawana Gawali (Patil), Ms. SS


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Inner Manipur Meinya,Dr. Thokchom INC
2 Outer Manipur(ST) Baite,Shri Thangso INC


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Shillong(ST) Pala,Shri Vincent H INC


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Mizoram(ST) Ruala,Shri C. L. INC


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Nagaland Tokheho,Shri NDPP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Aska Swain,Shri Ladu Kishore BJD
2 Balasore Jena,Shri Rabindra Kumar BJD
3 Bargarh Singh,Dr. Prabhas Kumar BJD
4 Berhampur Mohapatra,Shri Sidhant BJD
5 Bhadrak(SC) Sethi,Shri Arjun Charan BJD
6 Bhubaneswar Patasani,Dr. (Prof.) Prasanna Kumar BJD
7 Bolangir Singh Deo,Shri Kalikesh Narayan BJD
8 Cuttack Mahtab,Shri Bhartruhari BJD
9 Dhenkanal Satpathy,Shri Tathagata BJD
10 Jagatsinghpur(SC) Samal,Dr. Kulamani BJD
11 Jajpur(SC) Tarai,Smt. Rita BJD
12 Kalahandi Deo,Shri Arka Keshari BJD
13 Kandhamal Singh, Smt. Pratyusha Rajeshwari BJD
14 Keonjhar(ST) Laguri,Smt. Sakuntala BJD
15 Koraput(ST) Hikaka,Shri Jhina BJD
16 Mayurbhanj(ST) Hansdah,Shri Rama Chandra BJD
17 Nabarangpur(ST) Majhi,Shri Balabhadra BJD
18 Puri Misra,Shri Pinaki BJD
19 Sambalpur Pradhan,Shri Nagendra Kumar BJD
20 Sundargarh(ST) Oram,Shri Jual BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Amritsar Aujla,Shri Gurjeet Singh INC
2 Anandpur Sahib Chandumajra,Shri Prem Singh SAD
3 Bathinda Badal,Smt. Harsimrat Kaur SAD
4 Faridkot(SC) Singh,Prof. Sadhu AAP
5 Fatehgarh Sahib(SC) Khalsa,Shri Harinder Singh AAP
6 Ferozpur Ghubaya,Shri Sher Singh SAD
7 Gurdaspur Jakhar,Shri Sunil Kumar INC
8 Hoshiarpur(SC) Sampla,Shri Vijay BJP
9 Jalandhar Chaudhary,Shri Santokh Singh INC
10 Khadoor Sahib Brahmpura,Shri Ranjit Singh SAD
11 Ludhiana Singh,Shri Ravneet INC
12 Patiala Gandhi,Dr. Dharam Vira AAP
13 Sangrur Mann,Shri Bhagwant AAP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Alwar Yadav,Dr. Karan Singh INC
2 Banswara(ST) Ninama,Shri Manshankar BJP
3 Barmer Col. Choudhary,Sona Ram, VSM (Retd.) BJP
4 Bharatpur(SC) Koli,Shri Bahadur Singh BJP
5 Bhilwara Baheria,Shri Subhash Chandra BJP
6 Bikaner(SC) Meghwal,Shri Arjun Ram BJP
7 Chittorgarh Joshi,Shri C. P. BJP
8 Churu Kaswan,Shri Rahul BJP
9 Ganganagar(SC) Chauhan,Shri Nihal Chand BJP
10 Jaipur Bohra,Shri Ramcharan BJP
11 Jaipur Rural Rathore,Col. Rajyavardhan Singh BJP
12 Jalore Patel,Shri Devji Mansingram BJP
13 Jhalawar-Baran Singh,Shri Dushyant BJP
14 Jhunjhunu Ahlawat, Smt. Santosh BJP
15 Jodhpur Shekhawat,Shri Gajendra Singh BJP
16 Karauli-Dholpur(SC) Rajoria,Dr. Manoj BJP
17 Kota Birla,Shri Om BJP
18 Nagaur Chaudhary,Shri C.R. BJP
19 Pali Chaudhary,Shri P.P. BJP
20 Rajsamand Rathore,Shri Hariom Singh BJP
21 Sikar Saraswati,Shri Sumedhanand BJP
22 Tonk-Sawai Madhopur Jaunapuria,Shri Sukhbir Singh BJP
23 Udaipur Meena,Shri Arjunlal BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Sikkim Rai,Shri Prem Das SDF

Tamil Nadu

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Arakkonam Hari,Shri G. AIADMK
2 Arani V.,Shri Elumalai AIADMK
3 Chennai Central S.R.,Shri Vijayakumar AIADMK
4 Chennai North Venkatesh Babu,Shri T.G. AIADMK
5 Chennai South Jayavardhan,Dr. Jayakumar AIADMK
6 Chidambaram(SC) Chandrakasi,Shri M. AIADMK
7 Coimbatore P.,Shri Nagarajan AIADMK
8 Cuddalore Arunmozhithevan, Shri A. AIADMK
9 Dharmapuri Ramadoss,Dr. Anbumani PMK
10 Dindigul Udhayakumar,Shri M. AIADMK
11 Erode Selvakumarachinnayan,Shri S. AIADMK
12 Kallakurichi Kamaraj,Dr. K. AIADMK
13 Kancheepuram(SC) Maragatham,Smt. K. AIADMK
14 Kanniyakumari Radhakrishnan,Shri Pon BJP
15 Karur Thambi Durai,Dr. M. AIADMK
16 Krishnagiri Ashokkumar, Shri K. AIADMK
17 Madurai Gopalakrishnan,Shri R. AIADMK
18 Mayiladuthurai Bharathimohan,Shri R.K. AIADMK
19 Nagapattinam(SC) Gopal,Dr. K. AIADMK
20 Namakkal Sundaram,Shri P.R. AIADMK
21 Nilgiris(SC) Chinnaraj,Shri Gopalakrishnan AIADMK
22 Perambalur Marutharajaa,Shri R.P. AIADMK
23 Pollachi Mahendran,Shri C. AIADMK
24 Ramanathapuram Raajhaa,Shri A. Anwhar AIADMK
25 Salem Selvam,Shri V. Panneer AIADMK
26 Sivaganga Senthilnathan,Shri P.R. AIADMK
27 Sriperumbudur Ramachandran,Shri Krishnan Narayanasamy AIADMK
28 Tenkasi(SC) M.,Smt. Vasanthi AIADMK
29 Thanjavur K.,Shri Parasuraman AIADMK
30 Theni Parthipan,Shri R. AIADMK
31 Thoothukkudi Natterjee,Advocate Jayasingh Thiyagaraj AIADMK
32 Tiruchirappalli Kumar,Shri P. AIADMK
33 Tirunelveli Prabakaran,Shri K.R.P. AIADMK
34 Tiruppur Sathyabama,Smt. V. AIADMK
35 Tiruvallur(SC) Venugopal,Dr. Ponnusamy AIADMK
36 Tiruvannamalai Vanaroja,Smt. R. AIADMK
37 Vellore Senguttuvan,Shri B. AIADMK
38 Viluppuram(SC) Rajendran,Shri S. AIADMK
39 Virudhunagar Radhakrishnan,Shri T. AIADMK


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Adilabad(ST) Godam,Shri Nagesh TRS
2 Bhongir Goud,Dr. Boora Narsaiah TRS
3 Chevella Reddy,Shri Konda Vishweshwar TRS
4 Hyderabad Owaisi,Shri Asaduddin AIMIM
5 Karimnagar Boianapalli,Shri Vinod Kumar TRS
6 Khammam Reddy,Shri Ponguleti Srinivasa YSR Congress Party
7 Mahabubabad Naik,Dr. (Prof.) Azmeera Seetaram TRS
8 Mahabubnagar Reddy,Shri A.P. Jithender TRS
9 Medak Reddy,Shri Kotha Prabhakar TRS
10 Nagarkurnool(SC) Yellaiah,Shri Nandi INC
11 Nalgonda Gutha,Shri Sukender Reddy INC
12 Nizamabad Kalvakuntla,Smt. Kavitha TRS
13 Secunderabad Dattatreya,Shri Bandaru BJP
14 Warangal Pasunoori,Shri Dayakar TRS
15 Zahirabad Patil,Shri Bheemrao Baswanthrao TRS


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Tripura East(ST) Chaudhury,Shri Jitendra CPI(M)
2 Tripura West Datta,Shri Sankar Prasad CPI(M)

Uttar Pradesh

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Agra Ram Shankar,Prof. (Dr.) BJP
2 Akbarpur Singh,Shri Devendra (Alias) Bhole Singh BJP
3 Aligarh Gautam,Shri Satish Kumar BJP
4 Allahabad Gupta,Shri Shyama Charan BJP
5 Ambedkar Nagar Pandey,Shri Hari Om BJP
6 Amethi Gandhi,Shri Rahul INC
7 Amroha Tanwar,Shri Kanwar Singh BJP
8 Aonla Kumar,Shri Dharmendra BJP
9 Azamgarh Yadav,Shri Mulayam Singh SP
10 Badaun Yadav,Shri Dharmendra SP
11 Baghpat Singh,Dr. Satya Pal BJP
12 Bahraich(SC) Phoole,Sushree Sadhvi Savitri Bai BJP
13 Ballia Singh,Shri Bharat BJP
14 Banda Mishra,Shri Bhairon Prasad BJP
15 Bansgaon(SC) Paswan,Shri Kamlesh BJP
16 Barabanki(SC) Rawat,Smt. Priyanka Singh BJP
17 Bareilly Gangwar,Shri Santosh Kumar BJP
18 Basti Dwivedi,Shri Harish BJP
19 Bhadohi Singh,Shri Virendra BJP
20 Bijnor Singh,Kunwar Bharatendra BJP
21 Bulandshahr Singh,Shri Bhola BJP
22 Chandauli Pandey,Dr. Mahendra Nath BJP
23 Deoria Mishra,Shri Kalraj BJP
24 Dhaurahra Verma,Smt. Rekha Arun BJP
25 Domariyaganj Pal ,Shri Jagdambika BJP
26 Etah Singh,Shri Rajveer (Raju Bhaiya) BJP
27 Etawah(SC) Dohrey,Shri Ashok Kumar BJP
28 Faizabad Singh,Shri Lallu BJP
29 Farrukhabad Rajput,Shri Mukesh BJP
30 Fatehpur Jyoti,Sadhvi Niranjan BJP
31 Fatehpur Sikri Chaudhary,Shri Babulal BJP
32 Firozabad Yadav,Shri Akshay SP
33 Gautam Buddha Nagar Sharma,Dr. Mahesh BJP
34 Ghaziabad General (Dr.) , Vijay Kumar Singh (Retd.) BJP
35 Ghazipur Sinha,Shri Manoj Kumar BJP
36 Ghosi Rajbhar,Shri Hari Narayan BJP
37 Gonda Singh,Shri Kirti Vardhan BJP
38 Gorakhpur Nishad,Shri Praveen Kumar SP
39 Hamirpur Chandel,Kunwar Pushpendra Singh BJP
40 Hardoi(SC) Verma,Shri Anshul BJP
41 Hathras(SC) Diwakar,Shri Rajesh Kumar BJP
42 Jalaun(SC) Verma,Shri Bhanu Pratap Singh BJP
43 Jaunpur Singh,Dr. Krishna Pratap BJP
44 Jhansi Sushree, Uma Bharati BJP
45 Kairana Hasan,Begum Tabassum RLD
46 Kaiserganj Singh,Shri Brijbhushan Sharan BJP
47 Kannauj Yadav,Smt. Dimple SP
48 Kanpur Joshi,Dr. Murli Manohar BJP
49 Kaushambi (SC) Sonkar,Shri Vinod Kumar BJP
50 Kheri Misra,Shri Ajay (Teni) BJP
51 Kushi Nagar Pandey,Shri Rajesh BJP
52 Lalganj(SC) Sonker,Smt. Neelam BJP
53 Lucknow Singh,Shri Rajnath BJP
54 Machhlishahr Ram Charitra Nishad,Shri BJP
55 Maharajganj Chowdhary,Shri Pankaj BJP
56 Mainpuri Yadav,Shri Tejpratap Singh SP
57 Mathura Hema Malini,Smt. BJP
58 Meerut Agrawal, Shri Rajendra BJP
59 Mirzapur Patel,Smt. Anupriya Apna Dal
60 Misrikh(SC) Bala,Smt. Anju BJP
61 Mohanlalganj(SC) Kishore,Shri Kaushal BJP
62 Moradabad Kumar,Shri Kunwar Sarvesh BJP
63 Muzaffarnagar Balyan,Dr. Sanjeev Kumar BJP
64 Nagina(SC) Singh,Dr. Yashwant BJP
65 Phulpur Patel,Shri Nagendra Pratap Singh SP
66 Pilibhit Gandhi,Smt. Maneka Sanjay BJP
67 Pratapgarh Singh,Shri Kunwar Haribansh Apna Dal
68 Rae Bareli Gandhi,Smt. Sonia INC
69 Rampur Singh,Dr. Nepal BJP
70 Robertsganj(SC) Chhotelal,Shri BJP
71 Saharanpur Lakhanpal,Shri Raghav BJP
72 Salempur Kushawaha,Shri Ravindra BJP
73 Sambhal Singh,Shri Satya Pal BJP
74 Sant Kabir Nagar Tripathi,Shri Sharad BJP
75 Shahjahanpur(SC) Raj,Smt. Krishna BJP
76 Shrawasti Mishra,Shri Daddan BJP
77 Sitapur Verma,Shri Rajesh BJP
78 Sultanpur Gandhi,Shri Feroze Varun BJP
79 Unnao Swami Maharaj, Dr. Sakshi Ji BJP
80 Varanasi Modi,Shri Narendra BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Almora(SC) Tamta,Shri Ajay BJP
2 Garhwal Khanduri, Maj Gen Bhuwan Chandra AVSM (Retd.) BJP
3 Hardwar Nishank,Dr. Ramesh Pokhriyal BJP
4 Nainital-Udhamsingh Nagar Koshyari,Shri Bhagat Singh BJP
5 Tehri Garhwal Shah,Smt. Mala Rajya Laxmi BJP

West Bengal

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Alipurduars(ST) Tirkey,Shri Dasrath AITC
2 Arambagh(SC) Poddar,Smt. Aparupa AITC
3 Asansol Babul Supriyo,Shri BJP
4 Baharampur Chowdhury,Shri Adhir Ranjan INC
5 Balurghat Ghosh,Ms. Arpita AITC
6 Bangaon(SC) Thakur,Smt. Mamata AITC
7 Bankura Varma,Smt. Dev (Moon Moon Sen) AITC
8 Barasat Dastidar,Dr. (Smt.) Kakoli Ghosh AITC
9 Bardhaman Purba(SC) Mondal,Shri Sunil Kumar AITC
10 Bardhaman-Durgapur Sanghamita,Prof. (Dr.) Mamtaz AITC
11 Barrackpur Trivedi,Shri Dinesh AITC
12 Basirhat Ali, Shri Idris AITC
13 Birbhum Roy (Banerjee),Smt. Satabdi AITC
14 Bishnupur(SC) Saumitra,Shri Khan AITC
15 Bolpur(SC) Hazra,Dr. Anupam AITC
16 Coochbehar Ray,Shri Partha Pratim AITC
17 Darjeeling Ahluwalia, Shri S.S. BJP
18 Diamond Harbour Banerjee, Shri Abhishek AITC
19 Dum Dum Roy,Prof. Saugata AITC
20 Ghatal Adhikari, Shri Deepak (Dev) AITC
21 Hooghly De(Nag),Dr. (Smt.) Ratna AITC
22 Howrah Banerjee,Shri Prasun AITC
23 Jadavpur Bose,Prof. (Dr.) Sugata AITC
24 Jalpaiguri(SC) Barman,Shri Bijoy Chandra AITC
25 Jangipur Mukherjee,Dr. Abhijit INC
26 Jaynagar(SC) Mondal,Smt. Pratima AITC
27 Jhargram(ST) Saren,Dr. Uma AITC
28 Kanthi Adhikari, Shri Sisir Kumar AITC
29 Kolkata Dakshin Bakshi,Shri Subrata AITC
30 Kolkata Uttar Bandyopadhyay,Shri Sudip AITC
31 Krishnanagar Paul,Shri Tapas AITC
32 Maldaha Dakshin Choudhury,Shri Abu Hasem Khan INC
33 Maldaha Uttar Noor,Smt. Mausam INC
34 Mathurapur(SC) Jatua,Shri Choudhury Mohan AITC
35 Medinipur Roy,Smt. Sandhya AITC
36 Murshidabad Khan,Shri Md. Badaruddoza CPI(M)
37 Purulia Mahato,Dr. Mriganka AITC
38 Raiganj Salim,Shri Mohammad CPI(M)
39 Ranaghat(SC) Mandal,Dr. Tapas AITC
40 Serampore Banerjee,Shri Kalyan AITC
41 Tamluk Adhikari,Shri Dibyendu AITC
42 Uluberia Ahmed,Smt. Sajda AITC

Andaman & Nicobar

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands Ray,Shri Bishnu Pada BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Chandigarh Kher,Smt. Kirron Anupam BJP

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Dadra and Nagar Haveli(ST) Patel,Shri Natubhai Gomanbhai BJP

Daman and Diu

Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Daman and Diu Patel,Shri Lalubhai Babubhai BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Lakshadweep(ST) Mohammed,Shri Faizal P.P. NCP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Chandni Chowk Harsh Vardhan ,Dr. BJP
2 East Delhi Girri,Shri Maheish BJP
3 New Delhi Lekhi,Smt. Meenakashi BJP
4 North East Delhi Tiwari,Shri Manoj Kumar BJP
5 North West Delhi(SC) Raj,Dr. Udit BJP
6 South Delhi Bidhuri,Shri Ramesh BJP
7 West Delhi Singh,Shri Parvesh Sahib BJP


Sl. No.
Name of Member
1 Puducherry Radhakrishnan,Shri R. AINRC


MuskBros, The Cult of the Tech God and Mainstream Media

There’s something in the water in Silicon Valley. I’m not sure what it is, but it makes people real douches. The Tech God persona isn’t very new. That title belonged to Steve Jobs, before Elon Musk went and happened to the world. To be specific, even Steve Jobs didn’t really command that persona until Apple caught its second wind, which i would consider to be around the time the IPod came out. There was a time when celebrities came from either the recording industry or the film industry. The glitz, glamour, money and debauchery were all reserved for people who were involved with either one of these. There was nothing particularly sexy about technology. Big money always attracted a certain amount of “stardom”, but the tech industry making the kind of money it does now is, i’m sure you agree, a fairly new phenomenon.

“There was a time when celebrities came from either the recording industry or the film industry”

I do think it’s really strange (or maybe it makes perfect sense?) that two of the biggest stars that humanity have managed to create, since the turn of the millenium, are two colossal ass-hats who have created enormous empires by being smart. While the fanbase of both of these individuals isn’t limited to white men, there does seem to be a large portion of the population that do happen to be white and male. Now, i get it, the fanbase of toast is probably white men too, if you’re just polling people on the internet who use social media and are vocal about their views. For the record, i’m a fan of toast too. The point is, there’s something that’s very masculine about the winner-take-all and revolution at all costs attitude that Musk and Jobs are famous for having cultivated.  Being an individual of color, or a women, or a minority of any shape or form, makes you feel a certain indebtedness for those you consider as sharing in your identity, and a pressure to make things a little better for them.

White men have little incentive to feel these identity ties, and it really does make sense, since if your identity isn’t really threatened or subvert constantly, you have no reason to hunker down and make it a lasting part of your world view. Which is what makes it disingenuous when individuals identity as white, male or straight, since it’s essentially identifying with being in a position that allows you to bypass constraints and access power. Erin Biba, an author who writes for the Daily Beast, had a run-in with the MuskBros recently and her piece on the event, is a very interesting account of what happens when journos do try to criticize Musk.

“Which is what makes it disingenuous when individuals identity as white, male or straight, since it’s essentially identifying with being in a position that allows you to bypass constraints and access power”

After that shitstorm, she decided to poke around twitter for more stories like hers, and she found a tremendous amount of them. The attacks that she, and others like her have been subject to, have a very obvious gendered slant to them. You can’t deny that words like “Bitch” and “Cunt” aren’t gendered. It’s not even coded language. Another account of a woman who has been affected by the Tech god, is the daughter of Steve Jobs. She’s got a book out (i think), about some of the finer personality points of Jobs. I haven’t personally read the book, but you should go ahead and read the article regarding her book. Funnily enough, the bizzare incidents highlighted in the books don’t really stem from the “driven” nature of his personality, but instead just paints the picture of a rather petty human being.

So what is it about males that makes them invest the persona of the Tech God with this level of devotion. As mentioned before, i’m going to hazard a guess at the fact that Musk and his ilk have made silicon valley sexy, in some strange way. Nobody really invests their love and devotion in this manner on rock stars, for example. Nobody said anything when the world called Keith Richards an absolute nut job for snorting his dad’s ashes. It might be old and hackneye at this point of time, but the reason that MuskBros exist might really be the same reason that both Modi and Trump exist. It’s the idea of “talking power to power”. It’s the same reason that certain white Australians are horrified that Aboriginal Australians still hunt sea turtles. It becomes a convenient excuse to go after a target. Charlie Boy doesn’t really care about Sea Turtles, don’t let him fool you into thinking he gives a damn. It’s also the reason Modi says that Triple Talaq is even banned in Pakistan, and thus should be banned in India. It’s a media alliance of convenience.

screen shot 2019-01-07 at 11.11.37 am

..the reason that MuskBros exist might really be the same reason that both Modi and Trump exist. It’s the idea of “talking power to power”

Another interesting caveat to this entire story is the mainstream media and alternative “shadow” news distinction that is increasingly becoming more, dare i say, mainstream? This isn’t a phenomenon that is really distinct to the United States ecosystem, but is reproduced in a pretty standard form all over the world.

What this creates, in my opinion, is not two alternative narratives (this is not a dialectical exercise), but rather a “shadow” economy of news where there might be less “censorship”, but it’s not very often that this lack of censorship is in the interests of humanity.  I use humanity here with a liberal smattering of sarcasm. This takes different forms, in different parts of the world, depending on how opinion is transmitted. For example, India’s version of this is Whatsapp forwards about the Indus Valley and the fighter planes that they built. YouTube plays a much bigger role in most of the Westernized world. Is it just the fact that people like Musk and Trump cannot hear a word of criticism that makes them look at “alternative” sources of news? They repeatedly make the point that Mainstream Media have agendas and quotas to fill. In other words, they have a bottom line and they need to stay afloat. The last i checked, Tesla was a goddamn company. What makes Musk’s rantings the fount of unbiased knowledge and not the stuff of fantasy?

The United States Congress and taxpayer money played an enormous part in funding whatever it is that SpaceX is up to. This isn’t even considering what on earth is going on with Tesla acquiring stake in various other companies that are in the solar energy sector. Musk sold shares in Tesla (which he gets paid in as CEO), a few weeks before the acquisition, presumably to minimize his losses. I don’t know about you, but that sounds a whole lot like an agenda.

Biba in her article, says that this fracas essentially began because she published a tweet about the power that individuals like Musk had since an environment like twitter exists today. Her point was that someone like Musk should consider that he had to bear a certain amount of responsibility, and should not be going out of his way to demean “mainstream media.” This is the point that needs to be made though. The stock market, as warped as it is, does affect that lives and livelihoods of individuals around the world. To be just flat out bizzare and not give a hoot about the consequences is just absolutely privileged behavior  Subsequently, when she tried to source accounts from various others about the doings of MuskBros, she got attacked again. It’s not character assassination to write about the nature of a particular group of people. It’s literally her job. By aligning himself with some crazy sex cult website that literally brands people, Musk created some kind of crazy male frankenstein, and the damn thing had a twitter account.

Extended Content

14th December – International News Round-Up (Part II)


Defense One

America’s Africa strategy going forward is apparently to focus on driving American investment into the region. While this might help the United States in increasing their stake in the region (economically), it is not clear the security implications this will have, given that China is economically and militarily firmly embedded.

“….But he did not announce significant new military assets or changes to the size, location or mission of U.S. troops in Africa to counter that threat. The new strategy calls for countering Chinese influence on the continent through bilateral trade and investment programs, while simultaneously reevaluating foreign aid and assistance programs, including financial support for United Nations peacekeeping missions in countries whose governments oppose American interests at the world body.”


Pitbull covers Africa by Toto for the Aquaman movie.



Theresa May tells the EU that the withdrawal agreement won’t be passed by her parliament and that her MP’s still need convincing. EU leaders say this is the only deal that could possibly be negotiated. It seems that perception is where balance will be achieved.

United Nations

Al Jazeera

Head of the UNAIDS body has put in his papers following reports that he cultivated an unhealthy and damaging work environment. There were different scenarios including allegations of “a patriarchal workplace attitude” and “a cult of personality”.

United States


The Role that both Republicans and Democrats have played in ensuring that the war in Yemen continues.



How Cloverfield and The Cloverfield Paradox are connected.


December 14th – International News Round-Up (Part I)


The Iran Project

Imran Khan has played the game well since becoming Prime Minister.

“Well, when Imran Khan first came to power and formed his government just a few months ago I went out on a limb but very confidently saying that that he would be the best political ruler that Pakistan has had since the late and great Muhammad Ali Jinnah,” Garrie said.

“And events that have happened over the last few months now that Imran is in the government, have totally vindicated this. He’s put very few feet wrong and many feet right in terms of foreign policy relations. He has embraced with that spirit of win-win multi-polarity,” he stated.

United States


Maria Butina (Russian National) pleaded guilty to conspiring to act as a foreign agent.

Butina, who is a gun rights activist, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring to act as a foreign agent as part of a cooperation agreement with prosecutors. She admitted to acting under the direction of a Russian official, Alexander Torshin, another prominent gun rights supporter and a fixture in Russian politics.

Truth Dig

Harvard and its role in the California drought.

There was nothing illegal about the purchases, but they raised concerns among activists, Reuters reported. Susan Harvey, of North County Watch, an environmental advocacy group, wondered, “Is Harvard going to keep pumping groundwater, or cut back on returns to protect water quality and quantity?”



The Federal Trade Commission’s lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California alleges that Qualcomm’s patent licensing and chip sale practices were anticompetitive and sought to preserve a monopoly on so-called premium LTE modem chips, which help mobile phones connect to wireless data network.


Nhan Dan

At the event, speakers and participants exchanged their experiences regarding social network management and information safety solutions. They proposed measures to help the two countries coordinate and warn each other of misinformation and other online risks.



In a statement released today, Breck and Gresko called the move to scale back development on Heroes of the Storm a “difficult decision” that will affect the future of the game.


The Atlantic

Documentary on Toxic Masculinity in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

“The DRC is a country that has been going through war and ethnic conflict since the dawn of time,” Jackson Mbakulirahi, the program’s founder, explains in Arild Kumar’s remarkable short documentary, Baba Bora. “This ethnic conflict has destroyed the people. It has created distrust and hate. It has had a real impact on their way of thinking—their masculinity.”


Ecuador Times

Chinese loans to Ecuador.

August 22nd – International News Round-Up (Part II)


Ecuador Times

A public prosecutor has found evidence of criminal liability against VP Jorge Glas. However, he cannot be prosecuted without authorization from the legislature.



Report hung out with Witches during the solar eclipse.

Salem Witch Trials (Image Source: WIki Commons)
Salem Witch Trials (Image Source: Wiki Commons)


Philosophical Disquisitions

An argument on the nature of the Private-Public argument when it comes to services rendered.

“They argue that every privatisation agreement will have to afford the private agent a ‘zone of permissibility’ (or ‘autonomy’) in which they are free to exercise their own judgment about what to do. This zone of permissibility will necessarily remove them from the kind of public deference that is required. The reason for this is that in order to make any sense at all, a privatisation agreement must defer to the skills and judgment of the private agent. Recall, that the whole point of privatisation is that private agents are able to provide a good or service more efficiently than public agents.”

Public Policy

A Dragons Best Friend

A Cambridge citizen on the changing nature of his city and what on earth to do for kicks.


Breitbart News

There’s two sides to the conservative in the United States coin. One wants more troops pumped into Afghanistan, and the other wants nothing to do with foreign wars anymore. Even the ones who want troops in Afghanistan, want them to be private soldiers and not American military. It seems like private security contractors don’t really know how to feel at the moment. America has to win the war. America does not lose. But nobody has the political capital to send more troops into Afghanistan, even with the resurgent Taliban.

August 22nd – International News Round-Up (Part I)


Sudan Tribune

Chad’s PM has arrived in Khartoum and will hold talks for three days on the matters of political and security co-operation. The two countries signed a deal in 2010 that normalized relations between them.



Clever article on how antlion larvae prey on ants and why this results in smaller ants getting devoured. As an interesting thought experiment, does this mean that, eventually, the size of the average ant will get larger and larger and that they will stop falling prey to the antlion pincers and that the antlion will die out? So, a hunting mechanism of an organism could create a vicious cycle of selection in a species that is linked to it and that which could eventually result in its own extinction?

Virtual Reality


Straw Labs is testing how animals perceive their environments using virtual reality systems. Andrew Straw also thanked gamers for having created the demand that has allowed the technology that has helped in the creation of this system, to have been created.



The physics of diamond rain on some planets and what this implies for the synthesis of elements.

Gun Violence


Trace, a non-profit did a study on gun control laws. Apparently, the threat of social disorder trumps how people feel about gun control law.

2nd Amendment Rights (Image Source: Flickr)
2nd Amendment Rights (Image Source: Flickr)


Org Theory

Bog post on the experiences of a graduate student at Chicago.



The person in this article makes a point that I also read somewhere yesterday (I can’t remember where). The Unite the Right rally didn’t help the right wing, or anybody who supports trump. Moderate conservatives who might have wanted to be a part of or in fact were a part of the Unite the Right Valley are now seen as being complicit in what happened. Before, if you were a conservative, you could have made arguments for the fact that the right has shades, just like the left. Instead, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to make that argument.



Bitcoin isn’t regulated by officials. That’s a good thing.

Turns out, it’s also a bad thing.



The United States Navy had a collision. Article on the state of the US Navy and the nature of miscommunication in the armed forces.


The Daily Dot

Pao, who sued members of Silicon Valley has a book coming out.

Right Wing

Right Wing Watch

Ayyadurai has been heavily endorsed by the Right Wing in the United States. He also lays claim to being the “real Indian”. To me, this is also proof that the Right Wing might not be completely about ethnicity and race, and might be more of a shared vision of order and structure. It’s okay if you’re brown, as long as you don’t think brown.

August 12th – International News Round-Up (Part II)


Daily Dot

The Government of Guam has issued a 2-page document that details what to do in the event of a nuclear attack.



The incumbent Kenyatta won the presidential elections in. His main rival claims the vote was rigged. There were stand-offs between government loyalists and opposition supporters. The last time this happened (2007), thousands died.

North Korean Conflict

Zero Hedge


We’re going to have to wait and see if even the hardline trumpists like Zero Hedge will get behind this administration opening a two-front war. From what I read, they thought the interventionism of Obama and Clinton was the worst thing to happen. They were firm isolationists, for the most part. Though I don’t think anybody really believes that anybody in the White House actually thinks this is an option that could be explored.


Zero Hedge

The guy who wrote the diversity memo and got fired wrote an op-ed for WSJ. You can’t read the complete thing because you need an account, but the link above has a part of the article.



Argument against open borders. Author claim that this is not against immigration in general, but says that cases for open borders must be more nuanced. That’s a statement that I agree with in general, though the author does make one absurd claim: that tribalism is so robust because small groups are better at achieving certain results which lead to prosperity. This is ridiculous. Tribalism is a feature of politics which sees ethnic classes banding together. It’s not particularly self-aware or reflexive. In other word, tribalism justifies itself on the basis of ethnicity, not on the basis of efficacy.


The Cut

Article on the politics of “blondeness.”

Legally Blonde - The Musical (Image Source: Wiki Commons)
Legally Blonde – The Musical (Image Source: Wiki Commons)